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[
{"idt":"6GQ-2M7PJ87J-N","value":" Autonoetic consciousness refers to the ability to mentally transport oneself back in subjective time to relive elements of, or all, of a past event, and is compromised in the early stages of disease of Alzheimer (AD). Here, we investigate autobiographical memory (ABM) and the recollective experience in amnestic mild cognitive impairment ( aMCI ). aMCI participants exhibited significant deficits compared with healthy elderly controls for both personal semantic and event detail components of ABM. These decrements were evident across all life epochs for episodic recall . Recall of an event that occurred 1 week previously, was tested in the same spatiotemporal context, and provided the greatest group dissociation, with elderly controls benefitting from a context-dependent memory effect . This reinstantiation of context did not ameliorate the anterograde deficits in the aMCI cohort, nor did it facilitate the mental reliving of these memories for either participant group. Whereas reliving judgments were comparable in both groups, aMCI participants exhibited a compromised capacity to generate vivid, self-referential visual imagery and to re-experience the original emotion of events. These contextual and experiential deficits extended beyond recently encountered events into remote epochs, and suggest a greater level of ABM impairment in aMCI than previously assumed. The value associated with a stimulus as expressed on a continuum from pleasant to unpleasant or from attractive to aversive.6H6-1MZ40HDG-C"},
{"idt":"6H6-2K1Z5BMH-L","value":" Abstract: In the Deese paradigm , studying a list of semantic associates (holiday, beach, etc.) produces false explicit memory for a nonpresented lure (vacation). Here, we examine false memory with implicit retrieval . Experiment 1 tested memory for lures and matched on-list targets, using stem completion (implicit) and stem-cued recall (explicit). We replicated McDermott's (1997) finding of implicit false memory at a 10-min delay, using better controls for explicit contamination. In Experiment 2, we show that this semantic priming is modality-specific (on the visual test, lure priming was reduced with auditory study of the semantic associates ), consistent with the perceptual nature of stem completion . In Experiment 3, additional study presentations reduced false memory with explicit, but not implicit, retrieval , consistent with suppression of gist-based responses by veridical information only when explicit retrieval is required. Results also dissociate implicit and explicit false memory and demonstrate similarities between false and true memories with implicit retrieval . "},
{"idt":"6H6-F2RQBG8D-3","value":" Abstract: Prospective memory , which involves remembering to perform an action at a future time, is used frequently in daily life. Few researchers, however, have studied this type of memory with children. The present study examined and compared 3- and 5-year-olds' performance on naturalistic and computer-based Prospective memory tasks. The effects of incentive and external cues on memory performance were examined along with the relationship between prospective and retrospective memory . The results indicated that 5-year-olds demonstrated greater Prospective memory performance than did 3-year-olds and neither incentive nor external cues consistently improved performance. Relationships between performance on the naturalistic and computer tasks varied with age. In contrast to the adult literature, younger children's prospective and retrospective memory performances were related. Implications of these findings are discussed. "},
{"idt":"6H6-JWG17XMZ-F","value":" Abstract: Four experiments were conducted to examine the concreteness effect in implicit and explicit memory measures . Experiment 1 replicated prior reports of an imagery effect on an implicit conceptual memory test . In Experiment 2, we confirmed our prediction of conceptual sensitivity of free recall , explicit general knowledge , explicit word fragment completion and the implicit general knowledge tests with a levels of processing manipulation. Furthermore, although we obtained the concreteness effect (better memory for concrete than abstract nouns) in free recall and the explicit general knowledge test , we failed to find this effect in the implicit general knowledge test . Experiment 3 revealed that the failure to find the concreteness effect on the implicit general knowledge test was not attributable to combining two encoding manipulations in Experiment 2. In Experiment 4, we ruled out the possibility that the failure to find the concreteness effect in conceptual implicit memory may be related to the number of meaningful associates for targets. We discuss the implications of these findings within the context of the transfer appropriate processing framework(Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) and the dual-code hypothesis (Paivio, 1971, 1991) of memory . "},
{"idt":"6H6-K9NV79FC-G","value":" Abstract: In a series of directed-forgetting (DF) experiments it was found that inhibition of a to-be-forgotten (TBF) list could be disrupted by a secondary task and completely abolished by a concurrent memory load during second to-be-remembered (TBR) list learning . Similarly, inhibition was found to be wholly abolished when the TBF and TBR list were strongly associated but not when weakly associated. These findings suggest that inhibition in the DF procedure depends on how powerfully the second TBR list competes in memory with the representation of the TBF list. When the representation of the TBR list is impoverished or when it is too similar to the TBF list then competition is weak and inhibition is as a consequence weak or does not occur at all. "},
{"idt":"6H6-SQLNHVV1-B","value":" Abstract: We presented children aged 6, 8, and 10 years with a video and then an audio tape about a dog named Mick. Some information was repeated in the two sources and some was unique to one source. We examined: (a) children's hit rate for remembering whether events occurred and their tendency to make false alarms, (b) their memory for the context in which events occurred (source monitoring), (c) their certainty about hits, false alarms, and source, and (d) whether working memory and inhibition were related to hits, false alarms, and source monitoring. The certainty ratings revealed deficits in children's understanding of when they had erred on source questions and of when they had made false alarms. In addition, inhibitory ability accounted for unique variance in the ability to avoid false alarms and in some kinds of source monitoring but not hits. In contrast, working memory tended to correlate with all forms of memory including hits. "},
{"idt":"HXZ-T2KLV6R6-C","value":" Semantic dementia is a recently documented syndrome associated with non-Alzheimer degenerative pathology of the polar and inferolateral temporal neocortex , with relative sparing (at least in the early stages) of the hippocampal complex . Patients typically show a progressive deterioration in their semantic knowledge about people, objects, facts and the meanings of words. Yet, at least clinically, they seem to possess relatively preserved day-to-day (episodic) memory . Neuropsychological investigations of semantic dementia provide, therefore, a unique opportunity to investigate the organization of human long-term memory and, more specifically, to determine the relationship between semantic memory and other cognitive systems, such as episodic memory . In this review, we summarize recent empirical findings from patients with semantic dementia and discuss whether the neuropsychological phenomena of the disease are consistent with current cognitive and computational models of human long-term memory and amnesia . Six specific issues are addressed: (i) the relative preservation of category-level (superordinate) compared with fine-graded (subordinate) semantic knowledge as the disease progresses; (ii) the better recall of recent autobiographical and semantic memories compared with those in the distant past; (iii) the preservation of new learning , as measured by recognition memory , early in the disease; (iv) the interaction between autobiographical experience and semantic knowledge in the current, but not the distant, time-period; (v) increased long-term forgetting of newly learned material; and (vi) impaired implicit memory . It is concluded that recent findings from semantic dementia offer strong support for the view that memory consolidation in humans is dependent upon interactions between the hippocampal complex and neocortex. Furthermore, these investigations have provided computational modellers of human memory with a novel set of neuropsychological data to be simulated and tested. "},
{"idt":"M70-8G6NFHRQ-9","value":" Our memories can be accurate, but they are not always accurate. Eyewitness testimony, for example, is notoriously unreliable. Insights into both veridical and false remembering have come from recent investigations of memory distortion . Behavioral measures have been used to demonstrate false memory phenomena in the laboratory, and neuroimaging measures have been used to provide clues about the relevant events in the brain that support remembering versus misremembering . A central category of misremembering results from confusion between memories for perceived and imagined events , which may result from overlap between particular features of the stored information comprising memories for perceived and imagined events . "},
{"idt":"WNG-1VTL8FP2-Z","value":" Do false memories last? And do they last as long as true ones? This study investigated whether experimentally created false memories would persist for an extended period (one and a half years). A large number of subjects ( N  = 342) participated in a standard three‐stage misinformation procedure (saw the event slides, read the narrations with misinformation , and then took the memory tests). The initial tests showed that misinformation led to a significant amount of false memory . One and a half years later, the participants were tested again. About half of the misinformation false memory persisted, which was the same rate as for true memory . These results strongly suggest that brief exposure to misinformation can lead to long‐term false memory and that the strength of memory trace was similar for true and false memories . "},
{"idt":"WNG-3RMSCDX8-9","value":" Accuracy of metamemory for text was compared for multiple‐choice , essay and recall tests . Essay and recall tests were scored with Latent Semantic Analysis ( LSA ), number of correct idea units and number of word matches. Each measure was correlated with college students' predictions and posttest confidence judgments across texts to determine metamemory accuracy. Metamemory accuracy varied for different types of tests with multiple‐choice tests generally producing greater accuracy than essay tests. However, metamemory accuracy for essay and recall tests depended on the measure used to score them. Number of correct idea units produced the highest metamemory , word matches produced an intermediate level, and LSA produced the lowest accuracy. Students used the quantity of output in their judgments, so performance measures that related most strongly to quantity matched judgments better than measures based on answer quality. The results are compatible with an accessibility account of judgments about performance on text. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. WNG-403CZFHQ-3"},
{"idt":"WNG-5JS05GPV-7","value":" When searching for concepts in memory —as in the verbal fluency task of naming all the animals one can think of—people appear to explore internal mental representations in much the same way that animals forage in physical space: searching locally within patches of information before transitioning globally between patches. However, the definition of the patches being searched in mental space is not well specified. Do we search by activating explicit predefined categories (e.g., pets) and recall items from within that category ( categorical search ), or do we activate and recall a connected sequence of individual items without using categorical information , with each item recalled leading to the retrieval of an associated item in a stream ( associative search , or both? Using semantic representations in a search of associative memory framework and data from the animal fluency task , we tested competing hypotheses based on associative and categorical search models. Associative, but not categorical, patch transitions took longer to make than position‐matched productions, suggesting that categorical transitions were not true transitions. There was also clear evidence of associative search even within categorical patch boundaries. Furthermore, most individuals' behavior was best explained by an associative search model without the addition of categorical information . Thus, our results support a search process that does not use categorical information , but for which patch boundaries shift with each recall and local search is well described by a random walk in semantic space , with switches to new regions of the semantic space when the current region is depleted. "},
{"idt":"WNG-8HP4161G-F","value":" People sometimes exhibit a ‘ forgot‐it‐all‐along bias in which they claim that they have gone for months or years without thinking about certain childhood experiences despite recently recalling those memories. The present study examines memory for memories of childhood experiences, expanding on prior work by using manipulations that require greater reflection when thinking about remembered experiences and when making retrospective metamemory judgments . Age‐related differences in memory‐for‐memory accuracy were also examined. Young (18–20) and older adults (63–89) recalled various events while focusing on emotional or perceptual details for some, and several weeks later were asked to indicate the last time they had remembered various events. Results showed that young adults were more accurate than older adults overall, though both age groups still exhibited a forgot‐it‐all‐along bias that was reduced but not eliminated when a contextual reminder was provided. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "},
{"idt":"WNG-DZLJ02L8-0","value":" The reconsolidation of memories after their retrieval involves cellular mechanisms that recapitulate much of the initial consolidation process. However, we have previously demonstrated that there are independent cellular mechanisms of consolidation and reconsolidation in the dorsal hippocampus for contextual fear memories . Expression of BDNF was required for consolidation , while Zif268 expression was necessary for reconsolidation . Given the dichotomy between the obvious mechanistic similarity and notable dissociations between consolidation and reconsolidation , we sought to determine whether the separation at the level of gene expression reflected either parallel and independent upstream signaling pathways, or common upstream mechanisms that diverge by the level of transcriptional activation . Here we show that while consolidation and reconsolidation are commonly dependent upon NMDA receptor activation in the dorsal hippocampus there is a double dissociation between the effects of the MEK inhibitor U0126 and the IKK inhibitor sulfasalazine. Moreover, rescue experiments and western blot analyses show that there are functional NMDA receptor–ERK1– BDNF and NMDA receptor–IKKα–Zif268 pathways for consolidation and reconsolidation , respectively. Therefore, there are divergent pathways of hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation , involving commonality at the cell surface, but separable downstream kinase cascades and transcriptional regulation . "},
{"idt":"WNG-FWQGJ230-G","value":" This study investigated the role of memory sensitivity versus recognition criterion in the verbal overshadowing effect ( VOE ). Lineup recognition data were analysed using receiver operating characteristic analysis to separate the effects of verbalisation on memory sensitivity from criterion placement . Participants watched a short crime video, described the perpetrator's facial features and then attempted a lineup identification. Description instructions were varied between participants. There was a standard (free report), forced (report everything) and warning (report accurate information) condition. Control participants did not describe the perpetrator. Memory sensitivity was greater in the control compared with the standard condition. Memory sensitivity was also greater in the warning condition than in the forced and standard conditions. Memory sensitivity did not differ across the forced and standard‐description conditions, although a more conservative lineup decision standard was employed in the forced condition. These results, along with qualitative analyses of descriptions, support both retrieval ‐based and criterion‐based explanations of the VOE . Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. WNG-SDKH50D6-B"},
{"idt":"WNG-XJKHF718-5","value":" We explored whether object behavioral priming and pupil changes occur in the absence of recognition memory . Experiment 1 found behavioral priming for unrecognized objects (Ms) regardless of whether they had been encoded perceptually or conceptually. Using the same perceptual encoding task, Experiment 2 showed greater pupil dilation for Ms than for correct rejections of unstudied objects (CRs) when reaction times were matched. In Experiment 3, there was relatively less pupil dilation for Ms than for similarly matched CRs when objects had been encoded conceptually. Mean/peak pupil dilation for CRs, but not Ms, increased in Experiment 3, in which novelty expectation was also reduced, and the pupillary time course for both Ms and CRs was distinct in the two experiments. These findings indicate that both behavioral and pupil memory occur for studied, but unrecognized stimuli, and suggest that encoding and novelty expectation modulate pupillary memory responses. "},
{"idt":"WNG-ZNM6CHZP-Q","value":" The present study supports activation models of verbal short-term memory that include a semantic contribution to the retention process . Event-related brain potentials were used to probe the level of activation of semantic representations of a series of words in a delay interval following their presentation. The levels of activation were compared in two tasks: (1) a short‐term memory task that involved a semantic judgment in the recall phase following the delay interval , and (2) a nonmemory control task. The level of semantic activation during the delay interval was higher in the short‐term memory task, indicating that enhanced activation of semantic representations is involved in the short-term storage of verbal information. This result implies that activated long–term memory provides a representational basis for semantic verbal short‐term memory , and hence supports theories that postulate that short‐ and long‐term stores are not separate. "},
]